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[New TOEFL Preparation] Listening Test 64 (with Answers & Transcripts)

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Xuất bản 16/08/2015
Questions 1 through 5. Listen to a discussion in a business class. M1: The computerized workplace can be hazardous to your health if you don’t take preventative measures. Today we'll go over what some of these hazards are, and more importantly, what can be done about them. One major complaint—maybe the biggest complaint of people who spend time at the computer is eyestrain. To help ease the strain on the eyes, the computer screen should be about two feet from your eyes. The entire screen should be in focus. The brightness and contrast should be adjusted for best readability. A good way to relieve eyestrain is to look away from the screen frequently. Focus your eyes on objects that are far away, like something outside the building across the street or the tree in the parking lot. W: But what if your office doesn't have a window? I mean, I've worked in lots of places where there's no window. M1 : Then in that case, you need to get up and walk around. You should never sit for more than 30 minutes at a time anyway. This is important for the rest of your body as well, namely your back. Neck and back pain are a big problem for computer people. Always make sure your screen, keyboard, and chair are at the right height for you. M2: I think it’s important to have a comfortable chair, one that sort of shifts your weight a little bit forward. I put a cushion on my chair, and that really helps my lower back. M1 : That’s not a bad idea. The right chair is a must, the right posture as well. Remember what your mother told you — sit up straight, with your feet on the floor. Another thing I wanted to talk about is air pollution in the workplace — sorry, did you have a question, Martha? W: I’ve heard that copy machines arc bad for you. Is there anything to this? M1 : Photocopy machines aren't a health hazard for people who use them only occasionally. But for people who use them a lot, there can be bad effects. For example, people who handle the toners can get skin rashes. If you handle the toner, you should pour it in slowly, to avoid spreading the dust, and always wash your hands afterward. Another problem—if the machines arc in an area that's not well ventilated—is ozone. W: Ozone! No kidding! M1 : It's true. Almost all photocopiers give off some ozone. ... (some text removed) ... Correct answer: 1. B 2. B 3. D 4. C 5. C ------------------- Questions 6 through 10. Listen to a talk in a drawing class. Today we’ll begin our discussion on perspective, or how to represent three-dimensional forms on a two-dimensional surface. The basic rules of perspective date back to the early Renaissance and are still used today. Perspective can be challenging when you’re first learning to draw from observation, but it's essential to grasp if you want your drawings to represent the visual world as you see it. An understanding of perspective is mandatory for anyone who docs representational drawing. This includes professionals in a variety of fields interior design, illustration, architecture, industrial design, and fine arts, to name a few. Simply put, perspective allows us to differentiate between objects of different sizes and at different distances from the viewer. It enables us to see immediately what the relationships are. The fundamental principle is that objects appear smaller as their distance from the observer increases. For instance, someone across the street appears smaller than the person standing next to you. Someone down the street looks even smaller, someone farther away looks smaller still, and so on. Think of buildings in a landscape ... the cross-ties of rail-road tracks ... the cars on a train. These are just a few things we know are approximately equal in size, yet seem to diminish with distance because of perspective. Everything in perspective is related to the concept of eye level the horizontal line at the level of your eyes as you turn your head from side to side. Another related concept is the vanishing point. The vanishing point is a point at eye level where parallel lines going away from you appear to come together and then vanish. When you draw a building, for example, the vanishing point makes the building sort of recede in space and grow smaller. Yet, in reality, you know the sides of the building are parallel. If lines are drawn along these sides, they will converge at a distant point — the vanishing point. In real life, the eye level is rarely visible, and vanishing points virtually never are. Yet you should — it’s important for you to always work with an awareness of them. This is why I advise you to sketch eye level and vanishing points in every drawing, at least temporarily. Eye level and vanishing points will help you convey perspective. As you gain an understanding of perspective, you’ll find that your work is more confident and you’re better able to create a finished drawing from your sketches. Correct answers: 6. D 7. A & D 8. D 9. B 10. C
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