[New TOEFL Listening Practice] Test 88 - with Answers & Transcripts

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Xuất bản 15/08/2015
Questions 1 through 5. W: Dr. Zarelli? M: Hello, Karen. How are you? W: Pretty good, thanks. I was hoping ... um ... we could talk about the project that’s due at the end of May. M: Of course. What can I do for you? W: Well ... the project plan ... that parts due next week, right? M: Uh ... I believe that's right. Let me look at the syllabus. I tend to forget dates unless I have them right in front of me! Uh ... yes. that's right, the first due date—the project plan—is due next week, on Monday, May 3. W: I'm a little I'm not sure about what you want. Do you just... uh ... what exactly should the plan look like? M: Well, a description—a summary of your project. A short description of the topic and a summary of your materials and methods and what you hope to accomplish. W: I have an idea ... um ... it's something that interests me. But I'm not sure if — I don't know whether it fits the assignment. It's not about marketing as much as it has more to do with social change. M: Let’s try it on for size. Tell me your idea. W: Well, my boss—I work part-time at a credit union— and my boss is a person who's done a lot of different things. She used to be the president of an organization that helped set up cooperatives for women artisans in India. They make clothes mostly, and things like tablecloths and toys. She’s really interesting—my boss, I mean—and so are the stories about her work. I guess you could say she works for economic development, but also for social change because it’s work that affects women and their role in society. M: Can you tell me more about the organization? W: Sure. They're called Hearts and Hands. I looked at their Web site. They have a motto. "Changing view's, changing lives,” and their mission statement is “To empower artisans by providing economic opportunities and exposure to new' ideas.” My boss was the president for five years, and she’s still on their board of directors. M: Hmm, and what would you like to do with all this? (.....) Correct Answers: 1. C 2. B 3. B 4. A & C 5. Photographs of art - Not include Information from a Web site - Include An interview with her boss - Include A product catalog - Include ----------------------- Questions 6 through 10. Now that you know how sedimentary rocks are formed, the next step is to look at various shapes and learn to read them. On our next field trip, we’ll sec several of the formations called “mesas.” This landform gets its name from its flat top. “Mesa” means “table” in Spanish. The Spanish people who explored the area thought these flat topped hills looked sort of like tables. A mesa is wider than it is high—kind of like a large table. We’ll also see a variety of other formations, such as buttes, spires, and pillars. All of these spectacular forms are the result of the erosion of rocks of differing hardness. Water erodes rocks both mechanically and chemically. The fast-moving water of rivers carries silt, gravel, and rock debris, and this scours the rock underneath. Slow-moving standing water also erodes when it enters tiny rock pores and dissolves the cements holding the rock together. On a mesa, conditions are optimal for erosion. With enough time, even the durable top of a mesa will decrease in size. The sides of a mesa are often made of shale or softer sandstone. The slope of the sides will increase the water’s speed and force as it runs down. Freezing and thawing loosen the surface rock. Debris carried by the running water cuts away the softer surface rock. As the softer base of the mesa recedes, the edge of the top is weakened, and it eventually cracks, splits, and falls. As a mesa is shrunk in size by water, it may be cut into smaller landforms. If these smaller remnants are at least as high as they are wide, they are called “buttes.” The great buttes we’ll see were all created by water—rather than wind—erosion. Further erosion can change a butte into a tower or spire. This is because the shaft of the spire is usually harder than the base on which it stands, and—and like a mesa or butte—it's capped with a rim of even harder rock. The spires you’ll see were left standing after the sandstone around them eroded away. You can see why they’re also called “chimneys.” I mean, they sort of jut up from the sandstone floor. Further erosion of the softer rock may reduce the spire to some interesting and really weird forms. We’ll see some hourglass- shaped rocks, mushroom-shaped rocks, and a sort of strangely eroded pillar. Over time, erosion finally topples these rocks to the ground. They might remain there as boulders, or they might undergo further erosion that completely demolishes them so they disintegrate into pebbles. Finally, these pebbles end up as the sand we walk on as we explore the surface of the plateau. Correct Answers: 6. C 7. A & D 8. B 9. C-A-D-B 10. B
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