New TOEFL Listening Preparation - Test 29: Inference Questions (with Answers)

Xuất bản 15/08/2015
Practice these TOEFL iBT listening tests to help you score high in the TOEFL Listening Section. Check the correct answers and audio transcripts below. This video is in the series of NEW TOEFL iBT Tests: Questions 6 through 11. Listen to a lecture in an American literature class. (professor) Continuing our discussion of different genres of American literature, today we'll be discussing historical fiction. Historical fiction is a kind of fiction that tries to portray a certain time period or historical event while adding to or altering the facts to create a storyline. Often the historical event is told through the eyes of a fictional character, and sometimes the historical facts are altered to improve the storyline. One of the finest examples of historical American fiction is the Little House series of books written by Laura Ingalls Wilder. How many of you are familiar with this series of books? I’m sure you're all familiar with the television series that was based on it. The Little House books began as a record of the stories Pa told Laura when she was little. When her first book, Little House in the Big Woods, was a success, Laura Wilder was asked to write a series of stories, not the history, of her childhood. The point I want you to understand clearly is that every incident in Laura Wilder’s books is true, but Laura purposefully did not tell the whole truth. She wanted to write books that she felt were appropriate for children. What she did was to leave out events and to alter names that were unpleasant. An example of an event that Laura omitted because it was unpleasant was the life of the fourth Ingalls child. The fourth child was a boy, a boy named Charles Fredrick Ingalls, who died before his first birthday; the life of this child was omitted from her books. Another example shows how Laura changed the names of people portrayed in a bad light. Nellie Olsen was a character in the book rather than a real person. This character was based on a composite of two girls in Plum Creek, Nellie Owens and Ginny Masters, two girls who caused Mary and Laura a lot of trouble. Laura didn’t want to use the real names of these bothersome girls in her books. From these examples, we can see that one of the ways that Laura made her stories more appropriate for children was to make her stories a little more pleasant than her life had actually been. Another technique she used to make her stories more appropriate for children was to simplify the storylines. Now well see another example of how Laura simplified storylines by omitting events that actually happened because she wanted to make the story easier to follow. O Laura altered the description of the moves that her family actually made, for the sake of simplicity. In real life, the Ingalls family moved from the Big Woods to Missouri, then to the Indian Territory, back to the Big Woods, and finally to Minnesota. In the Little House books, Laura recorded the Ingalls moving from the Big Woods to Indian Territory and then to Minnesota. There are many other such details and events that Laura felt were not appropriate for children. These changes are what move her work from the genre of autobiography to the genre of historical fiction. In summary, although the Little House books record true historical events as they happened, the series is considered historical fiction rather than autobiography because Laura Wilder omitted events and altered names to improve the storyline and make her books appropriate for her readers. Correct Answers: 6. A 7. B 8. C 9. C & D 10. D 11. A
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