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[TOEFL Listening Practice] Test 78 (with Answers & Transcripts)

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Xuất bản 15/08/2015
Questions 1 through 5. Listen to a professor lead a discussion in a biology class. W1: In our last meeting we discussed how science is a process. Science involves the formation of a hypothesis and the testing of that hypothesis through observation and experimentation. We use this process to answer our questions about nature. Today we’ll focus on science and technology. Technology, especially in the form of new instruments, can extend our ability to observe. Technology enables us to work on questions that were previously unapproachable. In turn, technology often applies the discoveries of science. Can anyone think of an example? Yes, Rosa? W2: The inventors of the electron microscope used electromagnetic theory from physics. W1: The electron microscope is an excellent example of applied Science. But not all technology can be described as applied science. In fact, technology came before science in our prehistory. Technology was driven by inventive humans who built tools, made pottery, designed musical instruments, and so on, all without science—that is, without people necessarily understanding why their inventions worked. M1: Technology might not be science, but I think technology mostly helps us. It enables us to cure diseases so people can live longer. W2: But look at the environmental consequences, like global warming and holes in the ozone. M2: Not to mention nuclear accidents, toxic waste, extinction of species—technology can’t save us from ourselves. W1: You’re all raising some very important issues. Technology has improved our standard of living in many ways, but technology is a double-edged sword. Science and technology are partners. Science can help us identify problems and provide insight about what course of action may prevent further damage. But solutions to these problems have as much to do with politics, economics, and culture as with science and technology. Ml: I think scientists have a responsibility to educate politicians and the public about the consequences of certain technologies. This is why I'm a science major now, but I’ve decided to get a master's degree in public policy. W1: And a decision like that is important. Scientists should try to influence how technology applies the discoveries of science. Correct Answers: 1. B 2. A 3. D 4. C 5. B ------------------ Questions 6 through 10. A forester has been invited to speak to a group of students. Listen to part of the talk. M1: No matter whether we live in the country, the suburbs, or the city, we come in contact with forests every day. A combination of trees, other plants, insects, wildlife, soil, water, air. and people is a forest. I’m a professional forester. That means I’ve been trained in the management of forests. Managing a forest is both a science and an art, which is why my education included courses in the biological, physical, and social sciences, as well as the humanities. W: Doesn’t being a forester mean you always work in the woods? M1: Foresters, of course, do work in the woods. More and more, however, they also work in laboratories, classrooms, planning agencies, corporate offices, and so forth. In fact, our professional organization, the Society of American Foresters, lists over 700 job categories. M2: I’ve always been confused about the difference between a national park and a national forest. In a lot of ways they're similar. For example, we can camp and hike in both. M1: There is a difference between them. National parks, such as Yellowstone, are set aside and preserved in a near-natural state, mainly for the recreational enjoyment of the public. Our parks are administered by the Department of the Interior. National forests, on the other hand, are administered by the Department of Agriculture. Our forests are managed for their many benefits, including recreation, wood products, wildlife, and water. M2: That means there's a difference between a forester and a park ranger, right? M1: Yes, there are differences. A forester manages an area of forest for forest products, water quality, wildlife, recreation, and so on. A park ranger, on the other hand, manages an area in a national or state park, mainly for recreation. Another difference is who owns the land. A forester can work on federal, state, or private land, while a park ranger is almost always a government employee. W: My major is biology, but I'd like to work in the woods in the area of wildlife preservation. Would that make me a forester or a biologist? M1: Some foresters are primarily biologists. But most foresters majored in forestry management. Foresters and wildlife biologists often work together as a team. Both foresters and biologists want to see that various types of habitat flourish. Deer, for example, require a different habitat than wolves — yet the forest can accommodate them both. Correct Answers: 6. A & C 7. A 8. B 9. D 10. C
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