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[TOEFL 2016] Listening Practice Test 10 - with Answers and Transcripts

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Xuất bản 16/08/2015
Practice these TOEFL iBT listening tests to help you score high in the TOEFL Listening Section. Check the correct answers and audio transcripts below. This video is in the series of NEW TOEFL iBT Tests 2015. Questions 7 through 12. Listen as an instructor leads a discussion of some material from a psychology class. (instructor) Today, we’re going to review the characteristics of sleep, in both humans and other types of living beings. We talked about this some in the last class, and you should have done the reading, so this should all be clear to you. First of all, what are the main characteristics of sleep? Let's talk about this diagram. - What happens to the human body when a person is sleeping? Uh . . . can you start this off for us, Pam? (Pam): Well, during sleep, the, um, muscles relax, both breathing and heart rate slow down, and . . . brain waves change. (instructor) Exactly. Now, let’s look at these drawings of brain wave patterns. 0 Ron, can you explain how brain waves change? (Ron): I think so. The brain of a person who’s awake and relaxed gives off about 10 small waves per second, like in the drawing on the left. But it’s different in deep sleep. (instructor) What’s different about deep sleep? - Well, I think that in deep sleep, the, uh, brain waves become much slower and larger, like in the drawing on the right. Well . . . you don't sound quite sure of your answers, Ron, but you've got them exactly right. Brain waves are the slowest and largest during the first few hours of a period of sleep. This is called the period of slow-wave sleep. Are brain waves always large and slow during sleep? Nancy? - No, um, there are periods of small and fast waves at intervals during a period of sleep. These short and fast waves are similar to the brain waves of a person who's awake. - And what happens to the eyes during these periods of fast brain activity? - The sleeper’s eyes move rapidly. This is called “rapid-eve-movement sleep” or REM sleep. - Yes, Pam, exactly. And what other name does the period of REM, or rapid-eve- movement, sleep have? - REM sleep is called "dreaming sleep" because this is when dreaming occurs. OK, lei’s stop for a moment and make sure it’s all clear so far. . . . We’ve seen that when a person sleeps, there're different types of brain-wave activity. There're periods of large, slow brain waves during deep sleep, and there’re periods of small, fast brain waves during REM, or dreaming, sleep. Now, we’re going to compare human sleep patterns with the sleep patterns of certain animals. What can you tell me about the sleep patterns of mammals, Ron? Mammals seem to experience true sleep, with changes in brain-wave patterns. - They have periods of dreaming sleep and periods of slow-wave sleep. - And what about reptiles and fish? Nancy? - Reptiles also experience sleep with changes in brain-wave patterns, but they don’t seem to have periods of dreaming sleep. Fish have periods when they become less aware of their surroundings, but, um, there’s no scientific evidence of changes in brain waves. - Excellent. Now', Pam, let’s see if you can summarize the information for us. Which types of animals seem to experience changes in brain waves while they're sleeping? - Humans, of course, and also mammals, birds, and reptiles. Fish don’t seem to experience changes in brain waves. And what about periods of dreaming? Again, humans, of course, experience periods of dreaming, and most mammals seem to experience the same type of dreaming, with periods of dreaming sleep and periods of slow-wave sleep. Birds may experience short periods of dreaming, but reptiles and fish don’t. (instructor) That’s very good. That's all for today. Correct Answers: 7. D 8. A and C 9. A 10. Fish: No period of dreaming Mammals: Longer periods of dreaming Birds: Brief periods of dreaming 11. C 12. D
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