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Learn English Grammar: Reported Speech / Indirect Speech

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Xuất bản 15/08/2015 Billy TOLD ME that you wanted to learn this, so I responded with this grammar video! Learn the proper use of reported speech (also called indirect speech), and start using great verbs such as 'informed', 'replied' and 'persuaded'. Pay attention, because there are some complex grammar rules here! You'll also learn how to properly use 'say' and 'tell'. Test yourself with the quiz: TRANSCRIPT Hi, there, guys. Welcome back. We're going to do a lesson today on using indirect speech. What does that mean? Well, this is where we are relating something that someone said. I'm going to talk you through the differences between indirect speech -- or reported speech -- and direct speech, using these little things called "quotation marks" or "speech marks". I'm going to give you some useful vocab for using reported speech, and showing you the difference between "tell" and "say". I hope it's useful. So my friend Billy, he's not feeling very well today. So he says, "I'm feeling sick." Now, if I'm using direct speech, that's where I use my quotation marks, my speech marks. I would write it like this: Billy said -- with a little comma -- "I'm feeling sick." -- end of quotation marks. But if I'm using reported speech, this is I don't use his exact words, and I don't use these quotation marks. So I could say in reported speech: Billy said that he was feeling sick. I have used the same words here. But look. I'm using "said that" and no quotation marks. Now, what are the differences between reported speech and direct speech? Well, direct speech uses the present. Look here. "I'm feeling sick." "I am" is obviously in the present. Whereas reported speech is going to use past. He said he was feeling sick. So these are how we put some verbs into the past -- irregular verbs. Here, look. "I am" goes to "he was". "Am" goes to "was". "Are" would go to "were". So if Billy said, "You are a jerk", in reported speech, it would be, "Billy said that you were a jerk." "Do" and "does" would go to "did". So if Billy is saying, "I do play snooker", it would be in reported speech, "Billy said that he did play snooker on Tuesday last week." Okay? "Have" and "has" would go to "had". "Will" is going to go to "would". "Can" is going to go to "could". Okay? Difficult spellings. Doesn't sound how it's spelled. And then, with your regular verbs, it's going to go to + ed. So Billy might say, "I want to party tonight." If I'm going to do reported speech, it would be, "Billy said that he wanted to party tonight." Okay? I hope you're with me so far. I hope you're understanding. Good, good, good. Now, "tell" is a little bit different to "say". So when I use the verb "tell", I know whom the person is talking to. For example, "Billy told me that you were a jerk." So "talking to me", so I use "tell". I know who the person is talking to. But when I use "say", we don't know who the person is talking to. So "Billy said that you were kissing at school." Okay? "Said" -- it doesn't say "me". It doesn't say "said me". It just says "said". Okay? So we don't know who the person is talking to. Obviously, he's probably talking to me, but it doesn't say that here, so I need to use "said". Okay? Now, some interesting verbs to make your writing a bit more fluent, a bit more interesting to read. I could use "inform". Okay? This is just going to take -- so if I'm using reported speech, remember I'm going to put it into the past. So here, it's a regular verb, so I'll add -ed. "Billy informed me that he was going to be late for my lesson." We've already done "said". "Billy said that he was feeling sick." "Billy answered with the correct answer." Okay? So this is regular. I'm going to add in my -ed. "Billy reported to me that Sandra was behaving badly." You're a naughty girl, Sandra. Billy has reported you. Now, this one's going to go irregular, "reply". "Billy replied that the lunch was disgusting." Okay. How do we form this? Well, we take off the Y and put -ed, -ied. "Billy replied that the lunch was disgusting." Now, "respond". This is regular. "Billy responded that he was happy to be alive" -- -ed, okay? I'm playing around here. So "suggest" is going to be -ed and "persuade", -ed. What do these mean? "Inform" means "give information". You know what "said" is. "Answer", question, answer. "Report", like, report, give some information again. "Reply" is question, answer. "Respond" is just answer. "Suggest" is like -- it's like a whisper. "I suggested to the bus driver that he put his foot on the accelerator." "Suggest" -- it's an idea, a suggestion. And "persuade" is when you're persuading, "Come on, everybody. Make sure you do the quiz after this. You know where to find it," That is the end of today's lesson.
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